Framing is everywhere. A picture frame sets off a work
of art from its surroundings, bringing attention to the work
and lifting it apart from its setting. Shelves and pedestals,
and vitrines provide a stage for displaying objects. A sau–
cer frames a tea cup, and a placemat outlines the pieces
of a tablesetting. Cropping, borders, margins, and captions
are key resources of graphic design.
Margins provide a protective frame around the contents
of a publication. They also provide space for information such as page numbers and running heads. Wider margins can emphasize a picture or a field of text as an object, calling our attention to it. Narrower margins can make the content seem larger than life, bursting at its own seams.

Bleeds An image “bleeds” when it runs off the edges of a page. The ground disappears, and the image seems larger
and more active. An image can bleed off one, two, or three
sides.The photograph reproduced here is the same scale
in each instance, but its intimacy and impact change as it
takes over more or less of the surrounding area.
Image and Text An image seen alone, without any text,
is open to interpretation. Adding text to a picture changes
its meaning.Text and image combine in endless ways.
Text can be subordinate or dominant to a picture; it can
be largeor small, inside or outside, opaque or transparent,
legible or obscure.Text can respect or ignore the borders
of an image. Putting type on top of high–contrast image
poses legibility conflicts. Boxes, bars, and transparent co–
lor fields are some of the ways designers deal with the
problem of separating text from image.